The siege was lifted at the end of that year, when the military situation started deteriorating in the Upper Peru region.
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The Spanish governor was expelled in In , Portugal invaded the recently liberated territory and in , it was annexed to the Banda Oriental of Brazil. Uruguay was consolidated as an independent state in , with Montevideo as the nation's capital. Urban expansion, however, moved very slowly because of the events that followed.
Uruguay's s were dominated by the confrontation between Manuel Oribe and Fructuoso Rivera , the two revolutionary leaders who had fought against the Empire of Brazil under the command of Lavalleja, each of whom had become the caudillo of their respective faction. In , Oribe was forced to resign the presidency; he established a rebel army and began a long civil war, the Guerra Grande , which lasted until The city of Montevideo suffered a siege of eight years between and , during which it was supplied by sea with British and French support. Finally, in , with the additional support of Argentine rebels who opposed Rosas, the Colorados defeated Oribe.
Thereafter, the Colorado Party regained power, which they retained until past the middle of the 20th century. After the end of hostilities, a period of growth and expansion started for the city. The statue of Peace, La Paz , was erected on a column in Plaza Cagancha and the building of the Postal Service as well as the bridge of Paso Molino were inaugurated in In the same year, the Mercado del Puerto was inaugurated. In , the first railway line of the company Ferrocarril Central del Uruguay was inaugurated connecting Bella Vista with the town of Las Piedras. Public water supply was established in It was renamed to Artigas Boulevard its current name in The first telephone lines were installed in and electric street lights took the place of the gas operated ones in Other neighbourhoods that were founded were Belgrano and Belvedere in , Jacinto Vera in and Trouville in In the new port was constructed, and in , the Central Railway Station of Montevideo was inaugurated.
In the early 20th century, many Europeans particularly Spaniards and Italians but also thousands from Central Europe immigrated to the city.
In that decade the city expanded quickly: During the early 20th century, Uruguay saw huge social changes with repercussions primarily in urban areas. Among these changes were the right of divorce and women's right to vote. The s saw the construction of Montevideo's Rambla ; strikes by tram workers, bakers and port workers; the inauguration of electric trams; the creation of the Municipal Intendencias ; and the inauguration of the new port.
In , the city limits were extended around the entire gulf. The previously independent localities of the Villa del Cerro and La Teja were annexed to Montevideo, becoming two of its neighborhoods. To avoid risking the crew in what he thought would be a losing battle, Captain Hans Langsdorff scuttled the ship on 17 December. Langsdorff committed suicide two days later.scholninsosersken.tk
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The eagle figurehead of the Graf Spee was salvaged on 10 February ;  to protect the feelings of those still sensitive to Nazi Germany , the swastika on the figurehead was covered as it was pulled from the water. There were major problems with supply; the immigration cycle was reversed. From the s to the end of the dictatorship in , around one hundred people died or disappeared because of the political violence.
From another hundred Uruguayans disappeared also in Argentina. The result weakened the military and triggered its fall, allowing the return of democracy. In April , as head of state of Vatican , he signed a mediation agreement for the conflict of the Beagle Channel. In , he returned to the country, visiting Montevideo, Florida , Salto and Melo. The Uruguay banking crisis affected several industries of Montevideo. Montevideo has consistently been rated as having the highest quality of life of any city in Latin America: To the city's north and east is Canelones Department , with the stream of Carrasco forming the eastern natural border.
The coastline forming the city's southern border is interspersed with rocky protrusions and sandy beaches. Various streams criss-cross the town and empty into the Bay of Montevideo.
Its coastline near the emptying rivers are heavily polluted. Its highest elevations are two hills: The city has cool winters June to September , hot summers December to March and volatile springs October and November ;  there are numerous thunderstorms but no tropical cyclones.
Winters are generally wet, windy and overcast, while summers are hot and humid with relatively little wind. In winter there are bursts of icy and relatively dry winds and continental polar air masses, giving an unpleasant chilly feeling to the everyday life of the city. In the summer, a moderate wind often blows from the sea in the evenings which has a pleasant cooling effect on the city, in contrast to the unbearable summer heat of Buenos Aires.
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Montevideo has an annual average temperature of Snowfall is extremely rare: As of [update] , the city of Montevideo has been divided into 8 political municipalities Municipios , referred to with the letters from A to G, including CH, each presided over by a mayor elected by the citizens registered in the constituency. This division, according to the Municipality of Montevideo, "aims to advance political and administrative decentralization in the department of Montevideo, with the aim of deepening the democratic participation of citizens in governance.
Of much greater importance is the division of the city into 62 barrios: Each barrio has its own identity, geographic location and socio-cultural activities. A neighbourhood of great significance is Ciudad Vieja, that was surrounded by a protective wall until This area contains most important buildings of the colonial era and early decades of independence.
The building facades in the Old Town reflect the city's extensive European immigration, displaying the influence of old European architecture. The most notable sports stadium is the Estadio Centenario within Parque Batlle. The Pocitos district, near the beach of the same name, has many homes built by Bello and Reboratti between and , with a mixture of styles. However, the construction boom of the s and s transformed the face of this neighbourhood, with a cluster of modern apartment buildings for upper and upper middle class residents.
The Palacio Legislativo in Aguada, the north of the city centre, is currently the seat of the Uruguayan Parliament. World Trade Center Montevideo officially opened in , although work is still ongoing as of [update]. World Trade Center 1 was the first building to be inaugurated, in That same year the avenue and the auditorium were raised.
The Towers Square, is an area of remarkable aesthetic design, intended to be a platform for the development of business activities, art exhibitions, dance and music performances and social place. This square connects the different buildings and towers which comprise the WTC Complex and it is the main access to the complex. The square contains various works of art, notably a sculpture by renowned Uruguayan sculptor Pablo Atchugarry. It was designed by architect Carlos Ott. It is situated by the side of the Bay of Montevideo.
Ciudad Vieja was the earliest part of the city to be developed and today it constitutes a prominent barrio of southwest Montevideo. It contains many colonial buildings and national heritage sites, but also many banks, administrative offices, museums, art galleries, cultural institutions, restaurants and night-clubs, making it vibrant with life.
Its northern coast is the main port of Uruguay, one of the few deep-draft ports in the Southern Cone of South America. Montevideo's most important plaza is Plaza Independencia , located between Ciudad Vieja and downtown Montevideo. It starts with the Gateway of The Citadel at one end and ends at the beginning of 18 de Julio Avenue. It is the remaining part of the wall that surrounded the oldest part of the city. It was built in and is currently owned by the government of Montevideo. The reconstruction was completed in , and the theatre reopened in August of that year.
The Artigas Mausoleum is located at the centre of the plaza.
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Palacio Salvo , at the intersection of 18 de Julio Avenue and Plaza Independencia, was designed by the architect Mario Palanti and completed in During the first decades of Uruguayan independence this square was the main hub of city life. On the square are the Cabildo —the seat of colonial government—and the Montevideo Metropolitan Cathedral. A few blocks northwest of Plaza Zabala is the Mercado del Puerto , another major tourist destination.
Parque Batlle  formerly: Parque de los Aliados ,  translation: It has a high population density and most of its households are of medium-high- or high-income. On their grounds, they started a private collection of animals that became a zoological garden and was passed to the city in ;  in the Planetarium of Montevideo was built within its premises.
The Estadio Centenario , the national football stadium, opened in for the first World Cup , and later hosted several other sporting grounds of note see Sports. One of several statues in the park, it depicts yoked oxen pulling a loaded wagon. On the west side of Parque Batlle, on Artigas Boulevard , the Obelisk of Montevideo is a monument dedicated to those who created the first Constitution. It has been a National Heritage Site since Established in , the largest of Montevideo's six main public parks is the 1. The most frequented areas of the park are the Rosedal , a public rose garden with pergolas , the Botanical Garden, the area around the Hotel del Prado, as well as the Rural del Prado , a seasonal cattle and farm animal fairground.
The Rosedal contains four pergolas, eight domes, and a fountain; its 12, roses were imported from France in The Presidential Residence is located behind the Botanical Gardens. The park was conceived as a French-style city park. On the east side of the main park area is the National Museum of Visual Arts. On this side, a very popular street market takes place every Sunday.